Several methods can be employed to purify water from salt or contamination, and each one has its advantages depending on the situation. The most common marine water filtration techniques are outlined below, but keep in mind that other solutions may be available for specific problems.
Ozone is used to disinfect drinking water and wastewater to alternative chlorination and other methods. Ozone oxidizes micro-organisms’ cellular walls, making them unable to absorb essential nutrients or function properly, thus killing them. It also breaks down into oxygen which can be breathed safely by humans.
UV light has been shown to have a lethal effect on pathogens. The ultraviolet part of sunlight consists of short-wavelength energy waves that can kill bacteria and other microbes by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting the cell membrane’s structure in the bacteria’s DNA/RNA. This sterilization process occurs within seconds after exposure, thanks to developed photolytic materials from research.
Activated Carbon Filtration
Activated carbon is timber or coal treated with oxygen to open up micropores within its surface area, enabling activated charcoal to adsorb impurities. Cation exchangers are also used to adsorb impurities.
Reverse osmosis is one of the most common forms of desalination and can remove up to 90% of water contaminants in a Marine Water Filter. A semipermeable, thin film or other porous material removes salt and organisms (such as bacteria) larger than water molecules when pressure is applied to the salty side. This leaves you with clean drinking water on the other hand. The method uses about twice the amount of energy per liter compared with conventional treatment methods. Still, it may be cheaper in some locations where freshwater is expensive or difficult to obtain (or both).
Marine water is different than freshwater, so it requires a different filtration method to keep your fish healthy. The article above outlines various methods for filtering marine water. Knowing what each one is will help you determine which one is the best.